Title: Role of lysophosphatidic acid in the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors
Authors: Lidgerwood, GE
Morris, AJ
Conquest, A
Daniszewski, M
Rooney, LA
Lim, SY
Hernandez, D
Liang, HH
Allen, P
Connell, PP
Guymer, RH
Hewitt, AW
Pebay, A
Issue Year: 2018
Series Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids:
Abstract The human retina is a complex structure of organised layers of specialised cells that support the transmission of light signals to the visual cortex. The outermost layer of the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), forms part of the blood retina barrier and is implicated in many retinal diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid exerting pleiotropic effects in various cell types, during development, normal physiology and disease. Its producing enzyme, AUTOTAXIN (ATX), is highly expressed by the pigmented epithelia of the human eye, including the RPE. Using human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived retinal cells, we interrogated the role of LPA in the human RPE and photoreceptors. hPSC-derived RPE cells express and synthesize functional ATX, which is predominantly secreted apically of the RPE, suggesting it acts in a paracrine manner to regulate photoreceptor function. In RPE cells, LPA regulates tight junctions, in a receptor-dependent mechanism, with an increase in OCCLUDIN and ZONULA OCCLUDENS (ZO)-1 expression at the cell membrane, accompanied by an increase in the transepithelial resistance of the epithelium. High concentration of LPA decreases phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by the RPE. In hPSC-derived photoreceptors, LPA induces morphological rearrangements by modulating the actin myosin cytoskeleton, as evidenced by Myosin Light Chain I membrane relocation. Collectively, our data suggests an important role of LPA in the integrity and functionality of the healthy retina and blood retina barrier.
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/4446
Other Identifiers 10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.04.007
Publication type Article