Title: Insights Into Oxidized Lipid Modification in Barley Roots as an Adaptation Mechanism to Salinity Stress
Authors: Yu, DY
Boughton, BA
Hill, CB
Feussner, I
Roessner, U
Rupasinghe, TWT
Issue Year: 2020
Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its precursor metabolites are emerging as important regulators of both cell metabolism and cell state. Interestingly, the role of NAD(+) in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) metabolism and the regulation of pluripotent cell state is unresolved. Here we show that NAD(+) simultaneously increases hESC mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and partially suppresses glycolysis and stimulates amino acid turnover, doubling the consumption of glutamine. Concurrent with this metabolic remodeling, NAD(+) increases hESC pluripotent marker expression and proliferation, inhibits BMP4-induced differentiation and reduces global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation, plausibly inducing an intermediate naive-to-primed bivalent metabolism and pluripotent state. Furthermore, maintenance of NAD(+) recycling via malate aspartate shuttle activity is identified as an absolute requirement for hESC self-renewal, responsible for 80% of the oxidative capacity of hESC mitochondria. Our findings implicate NAD(+) in the regulation of cell state, suggesting that the hESC pluripotent state is dependent upon cellular NAD(+).
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/7429
Other Identifiers 10.3389/fpls.2020.00001
Publication type Article