Title: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide induces a bivalent metabolism and maintains pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells
Authors: Lees, JG
Gardner, DK
Harvey, AJ
Issue Year: 2020
Publisher WILEY
Series STEM CELLS:
Abstract Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Therapies for pediatric ALL have improved such that more than 80% of patients survive to 5 years post-therapy, and most survive to adulthood. These ALL patients experience long-term side effects that permanently affect their quality of life, with bone loss and reduced longitudinal growth being the most common skeletal complications. To determine the effects of the chemotherapeutic agents used in ALL induction therapy on bone density and longitudinal growth in mice, we treated juvenile mice with doxorubicin, dexamethasone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, or combination therapy. At adulthood, mice were culled and bones collected and scanned by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Mice that received doxorubicin and combination therapy exhibited reduced longitudinal growth and significant reductions in trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, with increased trabecular separation. Mean cortical thickness, cortical area, marrow area, endocortical perimeter, and polar moment of inertia were significantly reduced by doxorubicin and combination therapy. Vincristine treatment significantly decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and increased trabecular separation but had no effects on cortical bone. Dexamethasone treatment increased trabecular bone separation, cortical marrow area, and cortical bone periosteal perimeter. Mice treated with L-asparaginase did not have any bone phenotypes. In conclusion, these data indicate that the majority of the chemotherapy agents used in induction therapy for pediatric ALL have long-term effects on bone in mice. A single dose of doxorubicin in juvenile mice was sufficient to cause the majority of the bone phenotypes, with combination therapy intensifying these effects. (C) 2020 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/7432
Other Identifiers 10.1002/stem.3152
Publication type Article