Title: The role of RNA editing by ADAR1 in prevention of innate immune sensing of self-RNA
Authors: Heraud-Farlow, JE
Walkley, CR
Issue Year: 2016
Series J. Mol. Med.:
Abstract The innate immune system is the first line of the cellular defence against invading pathogens. A critical component of this defence is the capacity to discriminate foreign RNA molecules, which are distinct from most cellular RNAs in structure and/or modifications. However, a series of rare autoimmune/autoinflammatory diseases in humans highlight the propensity for the innate immune sensing system to be activated by endogenous cellular double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), underscoring the fine line between distinguishing self from non-self. The RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 has recently emerged as a key regulator that prevents innate immune pathway activation, principally the cytosolic dsRNA sensor MDA5, from inducing interferon in response to double-stranded RNA structures within endogenous RNAs. Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA editing by ADAR1 is proposed to destabilise duplexes formed from inverted repetitive elements within RNAs, which appear to prevent MDA5 from sensing these RNA as virus-like in the cytoplasm. Aberrant activation of these pathways has catastrophic effects at both a cellular and organismal level, contributing to one of the causes of the conditions collectively known as the type I interferonopathies.
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/6478
Other Identifiers 10.1007/s00109-016-1416-1
Publication type Review