Title: Identifying New Hybrid Insulin Peptides (HIPs) in Type 1 Diabetes
Authors: Mannering, SI
Rubin, AF
Wang, RK
Bhattacharjee, P
Issue Year: 2021
Abstract In 2016 Delong et al. discovered a new type of neoepitope formed by the fusion of two unrelated peptide fragments. Remarkably these neoepitopes, called hybrid insulin peptides, or HIPs, are recognized by pathogenic CD4(+) T cells in the NOD mouse and human pancreatic islet-infiltrating T cells in people with type 1 diabetes. Current data implicates CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIPs in the immune pathogenesis of human T1D. Because of their role in the immune pathogenesis of human T1D it is important to identify new HIPs that are recognized by CD4(+) T cells in people at risk of, or with, T1D. A detailed knowledge of T1D-associated HIPs will allow HIPs to be used in assays to monitor changes in T cell mediated beta-cell autoimmunity. They will also provide new targets for antigen-specific therapies for T1D. However, because HIPs are formed by the fusion of two unrelated peptides there are an enormous number of potential HIPs which makes it technically challenging to identify them. Here we review the discovery of HIPs, how they form and discuss approaches to identifying new HIPs relevant to the immune pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes.
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/6761
Other Identifiers 10.3389/fimmu.2021.667870
Publication type Review