Title: Circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates characterize the development of type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice
Authors: Popp, SK
Vecchio, F
Brown, DJ
Fukuda, R
Suzuki, Y
Takeda, Y
Wakamatsu, R
Sarma, MA
Garrett, J
Giovenzana, A
Bosi, E
Lafferty, ARA
Brown, KJ
Gardiner, EE
Coupland, LA
Thomas, HE
Chong, BH
Parish, CR
Battaglia, M
Petrelli, A
Simeonovic, CJ
Issue Year: 2022
Abstract Platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs) facilitate neutrophil activation and migration and could underpin the recruitment of neutrophils to the pancreas during type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. PNAs, measured by flow cytometry, were significantly elevated in the circulation of autoantibodypositive (Aab(+)) children and new-onset T1D children, as well as in pre-T1D (at 4 weeks and 10-12 weeks) and T1D-onset NOD mice, compared with relevant controls, and PNAs were characterized by activated P-selectin(+) platelets. PNAs were similarly increased in pre-T1D and T1D-onset NOD isolated islets/insulitis, and immunofluorescence staining revealed increased islet-associated neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) products (myeloperoxidase [MPO] and citrullinated histones [CitH3]) in NOD pancreata. In vitro, cell-free histones and NETs induced islet cell damage, which was prevented by the small polyanionic drug methyl cellobiose sulfate (mCBS) that binds to histones and neutralizes their pathological effects. Elevated circulating PNAs could, therefore, act as an innate immune and pathogenic biomarker of T1D autoimmunity. Platelet hyperreactivity within PNAs appears to represent a previously unrecognized hematological abnormality that precedes T1D onset. In summary, PNAs could contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D and potentially function as a pre-T1D diagnostic.
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/8323
Other Identifiers 10.1172/jci.insight.153993
Publication type Article