Title: Salsalate (Salicylate) Uncouples Mitochondria, Improves Glucose Homeostasis, and Reduces Liver Lipids Independent of AMPK-beta 1
Authors: Smith, BK
Ford, RJ
Desjardins, EM
Green, AE
Hughes, MC
Houde, VP
Day, EA
Marcinko, K
Crane, JD
Mottillo, EP
Perry, CGR
Kemp, BE
Tarnopolsky, MA
Steinberg, GR
Issue Year: 2016
Series Diabetes:
Abstract Salsalate is a prodrug of salicylate that lowers blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models; however, the mechanism mediating these effects is unclear. Salicylate directly activates AMPK via the beta 1 subunit, but whether salsalate requires AMPK-beta 1 to improve T2D and NAFLD has not been examined. Therefore, wild-type (WT) and AMPK-beta 1-knockout (AMPK-beta 1KO) mice were treated with a salsalate dose resulting in clinically relevant serum salicylate concentrations (similar to 1 mmol/L). Salsalate treatment increased VO2, lowered fasting glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and led to an similar to 55% reduction in liver lipid content. These effects were observed in both WT and AMPK-beta 1KO mice. To explain these AMPK-independent effects, we found that salicylate increases oligomycin-insensitive respiration (state 4o) and directly increases mitochondria! proton conductance at clinical concentrations. This uncoupling effect is tightly correlated with the suppression of de novo lipogenesis. Salicylate is also able to stimulate brown adipose tissue respiration independent of uncoupling protein 1. These data indicate that the primary mechanism by which salsalate improves glucose homeostasis and NAFLD is via salicylate-driven mitochondria! uncoupling.
URI: https://publications.svi.edu.au/publications/6426
Other Identifiers 10.2337/db16-0564
Publication type Article